Acoustic insulation is highly influenced by window acoustic insulation, however assembly is also significant. Acoustic insulation for sealing of the assembly gaps is one of the factors which influence window acoustic insulation. To ensure maximum window insulation, it is recommended to carry out assembly with sealing of mineral wool. An alternative solution may be assembly foam. With this type of sealing, a negative impact of the foam cutting needs to be considered, which, in the cases where high window acoustic insulation is required , may be eliminated with use of the foil.
Each assembly of windows should be performer based on the technical documentation developed by a person who holds proper authorizations. The necessary component of such documentation is development of the assembly plan developed in graphic format based on calculations which verify safety of window connection with the wall. Assembly of windows based on documentation developed in the above-mentioned way is to ensure proper selection of fixing elements depending on the expected loads and material, from which the wall is made. Aerated concrete is material, in which it is much more difficult (compared to other materials) to ensure consistency of connection made with use of connecting elements. That is why, it requires special attention when selecting proper connectors and their maximum span on the assembly plan.
Permitted vertical and horizontal offsets of window setting in the opening with the length of the element up to 3.0 m is 1.5 mm.
For elements with length exceeding 3.0 m, permitted offset may be adopted from proportion, however it should not exceed 3 mm.
Source: Technical Conditions for Execution and Acceptance of Construction Works ITB [The Building Research Institute] , part B – finishing works, volume 6 – Assembly of windows and the balcony door.
Deviations from nominal dimensions of the opening should not exceed:
- for openings up to 3m with unprepared frame +/- 12mm
- for openings from 3 up to 6 m with unprepared opening +/- 16 mm
- for openings up to 3 m with prepared frame +/-10 mm
- for openings from 3 up to 6 m with prepared frame +/- 12mm
Source: Technical Conditions for Execution and Acceptance of Construction Works ITB [The Building Research Institute] , part B – finishing works, volume 6 – Assembly of windows and balcony door.
The manner of the window woodwork assembly presented in the system publication ‘YAWAL VADEMECUM TM 74m’, pages 08.D.001, 08.D.002, 08.D.003 (version 08/2012) meets all conditions for the so called “warm assembly”.
It has to be noted that the correctness of the above-mentioned method consists of few aspects:
1) The term “warm assembly” is also called “layer assembly”, and it involves applying the protection of thermal insulation layer against the humidity from the inside of the building and against atmospheric conditions from the external side. The presented solutions reflect proper use of the vapour-barrier strip from the inside, and vapour-permeable insulation from the external side of the separator.
2) Maintaining the continuance of thermal insulation between thermal insulation of the wall and insulation layer of the window. The subject matter pictures present location of the windows so that thermal separators of window frames were in the surface of the wall thermal insulation, and so that thermal insulation assembled during the assembly of windows ensured elimination of thermal bridges.
3) Correct mechanical assembly of window structures. The presented system connectors allows for correct assembly, which ensures safe transfer of all strengths influencing the window during its use.
The presented solution is only an example of assembly and may not be considered as “universal” solution.
It has to be noted that assembly of the window should be each time carried out based on the anchoring plan developed by the designer authorized in this field.
To sum up, the exemplary solution of the woodwork assembly presented on pictures of the system publication YAWAL VADEMECUM TM 74 meet all aspects of the “warm assembly” definition.
Conditions for fixing structures made in Yawal TM 75El system are defined in the Technical Approval ITB AT-15-6830/2013 (item 2 – Designation, Scope and Conditions of Use), and on drawings which constitute an integral part of the Approval. Structures made of fire-retrdant system YAWAL TM 75 EI can be as shown on gif. 68 in approvals secure in a layer of insulation made of mineral with a dwnsity of at least 80kg/m3.
Properly made connection of window and door with the building structure, except for transferring all the strength from the construction load, climatic load or usable loads, which have impact on window, should be composed of three layers:
1. Internal vapour barrier which ensures sealing against penetration of water vapour inside the thermal insulation layers in the gap between the fixed structure and the wall. It is usually made of vapour resistant foil or self-adhesive vapour resistant strips.
2. Layers of thermal insulation made of polyurethane foam or mineral wool, which perform acoustic function at the same time.
3. External water resistant insulation, which secures against wind flow inside the building at the same time. Most commonly used materials for this purpose are insulation aprons made of vapour-permeable foil or hydrophobic expanding belts.
General principle about vapour-permeability and correct connection of window and door structure with the wall says: more tightly inside than outside.